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Healthcare Engineering Short Courses (HESC)
Background: Engineers are in high demand in healthcare, but many engineers may not have sufficient knowledge to serve in healthcare, because most engineering curricula, except those of Biomedical Engineering, do not cover healthcare. However, besides Biomedical Engineering, healthcare industry is in great need of engineers in almost all engineering disciplines, such as Chemical, Computer, Electrical, Industrial, Information, Materials, Mechanical, Software, and Systems Engineering. Our short course program is designed to bridge the gap.
To help course taker gain cutting-edge engineering/technology knowledge on virtually any topic in healthcare engineering.
To allow course taker to determine the course topic, objective(s), and scope based on his/her own background, interest, trend of healthcare engineering/technology, need of expertise in the industry, need of continuing education, and future job.
Rationale: Development of courses in healthcare engineering is very challenging due to the following:
Since healthcare engineering is a rapidly progressing field, it is very difficult to offer courses in a traditional format while keeping up with the speed and magnitude of emerging technologies.
Since healthcare engineering is an immensely broad field, it is very difficult to offer courses in a traditional format to cover all important topics to satisfy the needs of course takers and the healthcare industry.
As a highly interdisciplinary field, healthcare engineering covers topics that draw interest and contributions from a wide spectrum of background and specialty. For instance, the topic of Artificial Intelligence for Breast Cancer Diagnosis may be of interest to engineers, scientists, and healthcare professionals in Biomedical Engineering, Bioinformatics, Computer Science, Data Science, Electrical Engineering, Oncology, Pathology, Radiology, etc. Among them, some may be more interested in fundamental issues, while the others may be more interested in applications. It is very difficult to develop a course on a particular topic to accommodate course takers of varied background, specialty and interest.
We address the above issues by developing a short course format that allows course taker to develop his/her own course topic, objective(s) and scope, and select the most recent refereed archival journal articles based on personal background, interest, career prospects, etc. Each course taker needs to pass an ad hoc exam particularly developed by our advisory committee, along with the authors of the articles, to test the course taker’s understanding of the course materials.
Who should take the course: HESC are designed for the following groups:
Engineers and students from all engineering disciplines such as Biological, Chemical, Civil, Computer, Electrical, Environmental, Industrial, Information, Materials, Mechanical, Software, and Systems Engineering, who are interested in healthcare.
Healthcare professionals such as physicians, dentists, nurses, pharmacists, allied health professionals, health/medical scientists, and students who are interested in extending their specialties to Healthcare Engineering, or updating and further enhancing their professional competence.
Course taker contacts HESC to register and pays course fee. Courses can start anytime.
Course taker works with HESC advisory committee to determine the topic and scope of a course in Healthcare Engineering based on personal interest, background/experience, career prospects, etc. (Refer to general topics of Healthcare Engineering, engineering jobs in healthcare, and technical topics of online communities.)
The advisory committee provides a list of the most recent journal papers (see sample) related to the topic from the literature database of National Library of Medicine of NIH at www.PubMed.gov. This database is the largest and most authoritative biomedical literature database in the world, and includes only peer-reviewed, quality archival journal papers. The number of papers for the course depends on the course topic, scope, course taker's schedule, course fee, etc.; usually from 10 to 50, typically around 30. The committee works with the course taker to finalize a paper list that is acceptable to the course taker.
Course taker studies the papers at his/her own pace. Help/guidance is available from the Advisory Committee and authors of the papers if available.
Advisory committee, along with authors of the papers if available, prepares an ad hoc test (see sample questions) for the materials covered in the papers.
Course taker takes the test any time when ready. Test format: open everything (book, notes, papers, Internet, etc.), online, 60 minutes. Each test is uniquely developed for a certain course taker to test understanding of the particular set of papers selected; no second individual takes the same test.
Advisory committee decides the outcome (pass/fail) of the test.
In case of failure, course taker can retake the test multiple times (with different test problems and additional fee for each repeated test) at any time until passing.
Considering the rapid advancement of the technology, the set of selected papers needs to be updated every 6 months if the course taker does not pass the test within such time frame. Course taker needs to pay additional fee to work with the advisory committee again for a new set of papers. Procedure is restarted from step 3.
Course taker can change course topic and scope any time after paying additional fee. Procedure is restarted from step 2.
Upon passing the test, a certificate will be issued that shows the course title, scope, number of papers covered, and date of completion. A list of papers studied is optional.
Course of the same topic may be repeated if significant advances in the field have been demonstrated by the new papers published, true for most of the topics in Healthcare Engineering. Procedure starts from step 1.
Sample Short Course Curriculum
3D Printing for Medicine
(May 3, 2019)
1. Current advances and future perspectives of 3D printing natural-derived biopolymers.
Liu J, Sun L, Xu W, Wang Q, Yu S, Sun J. Carbohydr Polym. 2019 Mar 1;207:297-316. doi: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2018.11.077.
2. Tissue Engineering and 3-Dimensional Modeling for Facial Reconstruction.
VanKoevering KK, Zopf DA, Hollister SJ. Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am. 2019 Feb;27(1):151-161. doi: 10.1016/j.fsc.2018.08.012.
3. In vitro human tissues via multi-material 3-D bioprinting.
Kolesky DB, Homan KA, Skylar-Scott M, Lewis JA. Altern Lab Anim. 2018 Sep;46(4):209-215.
4. The clinical use of 3D printing in surgery.
Pugliese L, Marconi S, Negrello E, Mauri V, Peri A, Gallo V, Auricchio F, Pietrabissa A. Updates Surg. 2018 Sep;70(3):381-388. doi: 10.1007/s13304-018-0586-5.
5. 3D printing for preoperative planning and surgical training: a review.
Ganguli A, Pagan-Diaz GJ, Grant L, Cvetkovic C, Bramlet M, Vozenilek J, Kesavadas T, Bashir R. Biomed Microdevices. 2018 Aug 4;20(3):65. doi: 10.1007/s10544-018-0301-9.
6. Review fantastic medical implications of 3D-printing in liver surgeries, liver regeneration, liver transplantation and drug hepatotoxicity testing: A review.
Wang JZ, Xiong NY, Zhao LZ, Hu JT, Kong DC, Yuan JY. Int J Surg. 2018 Aug;56:1-6. doi: 10.1016/j.ijsu.2018.06.004.
7. Three-dimensional bioprinting of stem-cell derived tissues for human regenerative medicine.
Skeldon G, Lucendo-Villarin B, Shu W. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2018 Jul 5;373(1750). pii: 20170224. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2017.0224.
8. 3D printing from microfocus computed tomography (micro-CT) in human specimens: education and future implications.
Shelmerdine SC, Simcock IC, Hutchinson JC, Aughwane R, Melbourne A, Nikitichev DI, Ong JL, Borghi A, Cole G, Kingham E, Calder AD, Capelli C, Akhtar A, Cook AC, Schievano S, David A, Ourselin S, Sebire NJ, Arthurs OJ. Br J Radiol. 2018 Jul;91(1088):20180306. doi: 10.1259/bjr.20180306.
9. 3D Bioprinting of Artificial Tissues: Construction of Biomimetic Microstructures.
Luo Y, Lin X, Huang P. Macromol Biosci. 2018 Jun;18(6):e1800034. doi: 10.1002/mabi.201800034.
10. 3D bio-printing technology for body tissues and organs regeneration.
Biazar E, Najafi S M, Heidari K S, Yazdankhah M, Rafiei A, Biazar D. J Med Eng Technol. 2018 Apr;42(3):187-202. doi: 10.1080/03091902.2018.1457094.
11. The Evolution of Polystyrene as a Cell Culture Material.
Lerman MJ, Lembong J, Muramoto S, Gillen G, Fisher JP. Tissue Eng Part B Rev. 2018 Oct;24(5):359-372. doi: 10.1089/ten.TEB.2018.0056.
12. 3D printing processes for photocurable polymeric materials: technologies, materials, and future trends.
Taormina G, Sciancalepore C, Messori M, Bondioli F. J Appl Biomater Funct Mater. 2018 Jul;16(3):151-160. doi: 10.1177/2280800018764770.
13. 3D Printed Organ Models for Surgical Applications.
Qiu K, Haghiashtiani G, McAlpine MC.
Annu Rev Anal Chem (Palo Alto Calif). 2018 Jun 12;11(1):287-306. doi: 10.1146/annurev-anchem-061417-125935.
14. Tissue and Organ 3D Bioprinting.
Xia Z, Jin S, Ye K. SLAS Technol. 2018 Aug;23(4):301-314. doi: 10.1177/2472630318760515.
15. Enabling personalized implant and controllable biosystem development through 3D printing.
Nagarajan N, Dupret-Bories A, Karabulut E, Zorlutuna P, Vrana NE. Biotechnol Adv. 2018 Mar - Apr;36(2):521-533. doi: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2018.02.004.
16. 3D printing applications for transdermal drug delivery.
Economidou SN, Lamprou DA, Douroumis D. Int J Pharm. 2018 Jun 15;544(2):415-424. doi: 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2018.01.031.
17. Clinical efficacy and effectiveness of 3D printing: a systematic review.
Diment LE, Thompson MS, Bergmann JHM. BMJ Open. 2017 Dec 21;7(12):e016891. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2017-016891.
18. Biomaterials-based 3D cell printing for next-generation therapeutics and diagnostics.
Jang J, Park JY, Gao G, Cho DW. Biomaterials. 2018 Feb;156:88-106. doi: 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2017.11.030.
19. Surface modification of biomaterials and biomedical devices using additive manufacturing.
Bose S, Robertson SF, Bandyopadhyay A. Acta Biomater. 2018 Jan 15;66:6-22. doi: 10.1016/j.actbio.2017.11.003.
20. CT image segmentation methods for bone used in medical additive manufacturing.
van Eijnatten M, van Dijk R, Dobbe J, Streekstra G, Koivisto J, Wolff J.
Med Eng Phys. 2018 Jan;51:6-16. doi: 10.1016/j.medengphy.2017.10.008.
21. The recent development and applications of fluidic channels by 3D printing.
Zhou Y. J Biomed Sci. 2017 Oct 18;24(1):80. doi: 10.1186/s12929-017-0384-2.
22. Bioprinting and its applications in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.
Aljohani W, Ullah MW, Zhang X, Yang G. Int J Biol Macromol. 2018 Feb;107(Pt A):261-275. doi: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2017.08.171.
23. 3D Cell Printed Tissue Analogues: A New Platform for Theranostics.
Choi YJ, Yi HG, Kim SW, Cho DW. Theranostics. 2017 Jul 22;7(12):3118-3137. doi: 10.7150/thno.19396.
24. 3D printed drug delivery devices: perspectives and technical challenges.
Palo M, Holländer J, Suominen J, Yliruusi J, Sandler N. Expert Rev Med Devices. 2017 Sep;14(9):685-696. doi: 10.1080/17434440.2017.1363647.
25. Integrating three-dimensional printing and nanotechnology for musculoskeletal regeneration.
Nowicki M, Castro NJ, Rao R, Plesniak M, Zhang LG. Nanotechnology. 2017 Sep 20;28(38):382001. doi: 10.1088/1361-6528/aa8351.
26. 3D Printing Polymers with Supramolecular Functionality for Biological Applications.
Pekkanen AM, Mondschein RJ, Williams CB, Long TE. Biomacromolecules. 2017 Sep 11;18(9):2669-2687. doi: 10.1021/acs.biomac.7b00671.
27. 3D bioprinting and the current applications in tissue engineering.
Huang Y, Zhang XF, Gao G, Yonezawa T, Cui X. Biotechnol J. 2017 Aug;12(8). doi: 10.1002/biot.201600734.
28. 3D Bioprinting Technology: Scientific Aspects and Ethical Issues.
Patuzzo S, Goracci G, Gasperini L, Ciliberti R. Sci Eng Ethics. 2018 Apr;24(2):335-348. doi: 10.1007/s11948-017-9918-y.
29. Three-dimensional printed upper-limb prostheses lack randomised controlled trials: A systematic review.
Diment LE, Thompson MS, Bergmann JH. Prosthet Orthot Int. 2018 Feb;42(1):7-13. doi: 10.1177/0309364617704803.
30. Bone tissue bioprinting for craniofacial reconstruction.
Datta P, Ozbolat V, Ayan B, Dhawan A, Ozbolat IT. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2017 Nov;114(11):2424-2431. doi: 10.1002/bit.26349.
Sample exam questions:
What are the major technical challenges in applying 3D printing to surgery at present, and what are the promising solution approaches?
What are the major technical challenges in applying artificial intelligence to medical 3D printing at present, and what are the promising solution approaches?
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