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Healthcare Engineering is an immensely broad and rapidly advancing field. The table below is based on Healthcare Engineering Defined: a White Paper (Chyu et al., 2015), and updated by new topics added to individual subjects.


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(I) Engineering for Healthcare 

     Intervention (see description)

    A. Fundamentals

1.   Biomechanics

Clinical Biomechanics

Occupational Biomechanics

Biomechanics of Aging

Molecular & Cellular Biomechanics


2.   Biomaterials


Tissue Engineering

Drug Delivery

3.   Biomedical Instruments



Clinical laboratory

4.   Medical Devices









   Clinical Chemistry     


   Ear, Nose and Throat    

   Gastroenterology and Urology  

   General and Plastic Surgery    

   General Hospital and Personal






   Obstetrical and Gynecological  




   Physical Medicine    



5.   Engineering for Surgery

Minimally Invasive Surgery

Computer-Assisted (Robotic) Surgery

Image-Guided Surgery

6.   Medical Imaging

7.   Organ Transplantation

8.   Artificial Organs


3D Printing


Regenerative Medicine

Tissue Engineering

9.   Drug Delivery

Site-Specific Drug

Receptor Targeting Drug


Implantable Drug

Electronic Pill

10.  Genetic Engineering

11.   Engineering for Diagnosis/Detection 

       Computer-Aided Diagnosis

12.  Health Informatics, Information    

       Engineering & Decision Support

13.  Disinfection Engineering

    B. Engineering for Disease Prevention,

         Diagnosis, Treatment, and Management

1.    Cardiovascular Disease

2.   Cancer

3.   Alzheimer's Disease

4.   Diabetes

5.   Respiratory Disease

6.   Obesity

7.   Degenerative Diseases

8.   Osteoporosis

9.   Addiction

10.  Others

    C. Engineering for Patient Care

1.    Patient Safety

2.   Critical Care

3.   Neonatal Care

4.   Home Healthcare

5.   Elderly Care

6.   Patient Monitoring

7.   Health Disparities

8.   Disaster Management

    D. Engineering for Medical Specialties

1.    Allergy and Immunology

2.   Anesthesiology

3.   Cardiology 


4.   Critical Care Medicine

5.   Emergency Medicine 

6.   Endocrinology

7.   Gastroenterology

8.   General Surgery 

9.   Geriatrics

10.  Infectious Disease 

11.   Neurology  

12.  Neurosurgery 

13.  Nuclear Medicine  

14.  Occupational Medicine 

15.  Oncology

16.  Ophthalmology  

17.  Orthopedics  

18.  Pathology 

19.  Pediatrics

20. Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 

21.  Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic 


22. Public Health

23. Pulmonology  

24. Radiology 

25. Radiotherapy  

26. Rheumatology

27. Sports Medicine 

28. Urology

29. Vascular Medicine 

30. Others

    E. Engineering for Dental Specialties

1.    Endodontics

2.   Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, 

        Radiology, and Surgery

3.   Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics

4.   Periodontics

5.   Prosthodontics

6.   Others

    F. Engineering for Allied Health Specialties

1.    Audiology

2.   Clinical Laboratory Science

3.   Environmental Health

4.   Occupational Therapy

5.   Orthotics and Prosthetics

6.   Physical Therapy

7.   Rehabilitation

8.   Respiratory Therapy

9.   Speech Therapy

10.  Others

    G. Engineering for Nursing - including nursing in

         all related areas, particularly (I)B, C, D, E,

         (II)A, and B.

    H. Engineering for Pharmacy

1.    Pharmaceutical Design & Development

2.   Bio-/Pharmaceutical Manufacturing

3.   Pharmaceutical Devices

4.   Pharmaceutical Testing

5.   Pharmaceutical Information Systems

6.   Clinical Science

7.   Regulatory Compliance

(II) Engineering for Healthcare Systems 

      (see description)

    A. Healthcare System Management, 

        Improvement & Reform

1.    Quality, Cost, Efficiency, Effectiveness

2.   Operations Research & Systems       


3.   Lean, Six Sigma, Total Quality


4.   Human Factors

5.   High Reliability Organization

6.   Resilience Engineering

7.   Rural Health

    B. Healthcare Information Systems

1.    Electronic Health Record

2.   E-Health

3.   M-Health

4.   Telemedicine

5.   Wireless Technology

6.   Data Mining & Big Data

7.   Information Security

    C. Healthcare Facilities

1.    Healthcare Infrastructure

2.   Healthcare Energy Systems

3.   Healthcare Sustainability & Green Design

4.   Environmental Health and Safety

    D. Healthcare Policy

(III) Others 

    A. Healthcare Engineering Education & Training

1.    Collegiate Education

2.   Continued Education

    B. Future of Healthcare

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